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Configure Hadoop 3.1.0 in a Multi Node Cluster

1477 views 0 comments last modified about 4 months ago Raymond Tang

hadoop yarn hdfs

Previously, I summarized the steps to install Hadoop in a single node Windows machine.

Install Hadoop 3.0.0 in Windows (Single Node)

In this page, I am going to document the steps to setup Hadoop in a cluster. The architecture looks like the following diagram:

image

* Since Hadoop 2.x, Job Tracker is deprecated and replaced by Resource Manager/Application Master in MRv2; Task Tracker is deprecated and replaced by Node Manager in MRv2.

* Application master is the main container requesting, launching and monitoring application specific resources.

* The MapReduce framework consists of a single master ResourceManager, one worker NodeManager per cluster-node, and MRAppMaster(Applicaiton Master) per application.

Prerequisites

Infrastructures

  • Two open SUSE servers or VMs.
  • Network (LAN/NAT)

Hadoop 3.1.0 binary

Access to the following link is required to download Hadoop binary:

http://hadoop.apache.org/releases.html

I am going to use the current latest version 3.1.0 for this exercise.

References

Official cluster setup guide is available in the following link:

http://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r3.1.0/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-common/ClusterSetup.html

Step-by-step guide

Network configuration

Edit /etc/hosts in both servers to add the following configurations:

192.168.192.132 hdp-master
192.168.192.133 hdp-slave-1

Make sure the two servers can connect to each other.

ping hdp-master

ping hdp-slave-1

The ping should be successful from both side.

Setup Java

By default, SUSE already includes a JAVA JDK. If it is not available in your machines, please download from the internet (Refer to Install Hadoop 3.0.0 in Windows (Single Node)).

Create a new system user

Use the following command line in both servers to create a new account named hadoop:

tangf@192-168-192-133:~> sudo useradd -m hadoop
[sudo] password for root:
tangf@192-168-192-133:~> sudo passwd hadoop
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
BAD PASSWORD: is too simple
Retype new password:
passwd: password updated successfully


tangf@192-168-192-132:~> sudo useradd -m hadoop
[sudo] password for root:
tangf@192-168-192-132:~> sudo passwd hadoop
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
BAD PASSWORD: is too simple
Retype new password:
passwd: password updated successfully

In my case, I am using hadoop as password too.

Configure ssh

Enable ssh

Use the following command to enable ssh port in both servers:

sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Make sure the following settings are enabled:

Port 22
#AddressFamily any
ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
ListenAddress ::

PubkeyAuthentication yes

The above configuration use port number 22.

Use the following command to edit file /etc/ssh/ssh_config

sudo vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config

Make sure the following settings are configured:

Host 192.168.*.*
StrictHostKeyChecking=no
UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null

Use the following settings to enable and start the service:

sudo systemctl enable sshd.service

sudo systemctl start sshd.service

sudo systemctl status sshd.service

If the service is running normally, you can see the following output from the last command.

● sshd.service - OpenSSH Daemon
    Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
    Active: active (running) since Sat 2018-04-28 19:53:14 AEST; 12min ago
  Main PID: 3537 (sshd)
     Tasks: 1
    CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service
            └─3537 /usr/sbin/sshd -D

Apr 28 19:53:14 hdp-slave-1 systemd[1]: Starting OpenSSH Daemon...
Apr 28 19:53:14 hdp-slave-1 sshd-gen-keys-start[3532]: Checking for missing server keys in /etc/ssh
Apr 28 19:53:14 hdp-slave-1 systemd[1]: Started OpenSSH Daemon.
Apr 28 19:53:14 hdp-slave-1 sshd[3537]: Server listening on :: port 22.
Apr 28 19:53:14 hdp-slave-1 sshd[3537]: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22.

You can also use the following command to check whether port 22 is being listened:

netstat -an | grep :22
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp        0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN 

Enable firewall

Open Yast and firewall configuration:

# yast firewall

Goto "Allowed Services" and add "Secure Shell Server". Save and quit Yast and try to connect.

You can also configure it through UI (if enabled):

image

This needs to be done in both servers.

To verify whether the firewall rule is created, you can use the following command to verify:

hadoop@hdp-slave-1:/home/tangf> sudo iptables -nL | grep 22
[sudo] password for root:
LOG        tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            limit: avg 3/min burst 5 tcp dpt:22 flags:0x17/0x02 LOG flags 6 level 4 prefix "SFW2-INext-ACC-TCP "
ACCEPT     tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            tcp dpt:22

Generate ssh key

Sudo to hadoop in hdp-master server and generate a SSH key using the following command:

tangf@hdp-master:~> su hadoop
Password:
hadoop@hdp-master:/home/tangf> cd ~
hadoop@hdp-master:~> pwd
/home/hadoop
hadoop@hdp-master:~> ssh-keygen
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/hadoop/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/hadoop/.ssh/hdp-key
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in hdp-key.
Your public key has been saved in hdp-key.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:Ss1tzk7WNdxNqSmhgECtVZPHcPgnBJ+f/fJRialaikw hadoop@hdp-master
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|  .o. .=*.       |
|    .o.o++.     .|
|    o. .+o .   ..|
|   .   o.+o.+.=oo|
|      . S.=+ *+.+|
|     . . + .o....|
|      .E  =o.. o |
|      o .++   o .|
|       o o.    . |
+----[SHA256]-----+

Copy the key to other server

Use the following command to copy the public key:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/hdp-key.pub hadoop@hdp-slave-1

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/hdp-key.pub hadoop@hdp-master

Verify

You can verify SSH configuration by running the following command in hdp-master:

hadoop@hdp-master:~> ssh hadoop@hdp-slave-1 -i ~/.ssh/hdp-key
Last login: Sat Apr 28 21:17:23 2018 from 192.168.192.133
Have a lot of fun...

The hadoop account in your master server can now directly logon using the hdp-key.

Similarly, you can also login using the key from the slave server:

hadoop@hdp-slave-1:~> ssh hadoop@hdp-master -i ~/.ssh/hdp-key
Last login: Sat Apr 28 21:20:06 2018 from 192.168.192.132
Have a lot of fun...

Till now, you can easily use public key authentication to establish ssh connection.

Configure environment variables

Follow the steps below to configure environment variables in both servers.

Use the following command to edit bash profile:

vi ~/.profile

Add the following lines:

export PATH=${PATH}:/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/bin
export HADOOP_HOME=/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0

Apply the same changes to file ~/.bashrc and then run the following commands to apply these changes:

$ source ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.profile

Install Hadoop in master server

Download and unzip

In the master server, download and install Hadoop 3.1.0 using the following commands:

mkdir /hadoop

cd /hadoop

wget http://apache.melbourneitmirror.net/hadoop/common/hadoop-3.1.0/hadoop-3.1.0.tar.gz

tar -xvf hadoop-3.1.0.tar.gz

chown -R hadoop /hadoop

Run the following commands to verify:

su hadoop

cd /hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/bin

hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/bin> ./hadoop version
Hadoop 3.1.0
Source code repository https://github.com/apache/hadoop -r 16b70619a24cdcf5d3b0fcf4b58ca77238ccbe6d
Compiled by centos on 2018-03-30T00:00Z
Compiled with protoc 2.5.0
From source with checksum 14182d20c972b3e2105580a1ad6990
This command was run using /hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/share/hadoop/common/hadoop-common-3.1.0.jar

And now we need to configure Hadoop configuration files as I did in the single node configuration guide.

Configure hadoop-env.sh

Change file hadoop-env.sh in ${HADOOP_HOME}/etc/hadoop directory to add the following lines at the end of file:

export HADOOP_CONF_DIR="${HADOOP_HOME}/etc/hadoop"
export PATH="${PATH}:${HADOOP_HOME}/bin"
export HADOOP_SSH_OPTS="-i ~/.ssh/hdp-key"

The last environment variable is important because we used a different key name instead of the default ones. Without this, ssh connection cannot be established without interactive password input.

Configure HDFS -  core-site.xml

* All the XML files in the following steps are located in ${HADOOP_HOME}/etc/hadoop folder unless specified.

Make sure the following configurations are existing:

<configuration>
   <property>
     <name>fs.default.name</name>
     <value>hdfs://hdp-master:19000</value>
   </property>
</configuration>

Configure HDFS -  hdfs-site.xml

Run the following command to create a dfs folder and sub folders.

hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop> mkdir dfs
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop> cd dfs
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop/dfs> mkdir namespace_logs
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop/dfs> mkdir data

Make sure the following configurations are existing (you can change the file path to your own paths):

<configuration>
    <property>
      <name>dfs.replication</name>
      <value>2</value>
    </property>
    <property>
      <name>dfs.namenode.name.dir</name>
      <value>/hadoop/dfs/namespace_logs</value>
    </property>
    <property>
      <name>dfs.datanode.data.dir</name>
      <value>/hadoop/dfs/data</value>
    </property>
</configuration>

The above configurations setup the HFDS locations for storing namespace, logs and data files. There will be 2 copies of all data in the file system.

Configure HDFS -  workers

Edit file workers to ensure the following content exists:

hdp-master
hdp-slave-1

Configure MapReduce - mapred-site.xml

Edit file mapred-site.xml and add the following configuration:

<configuration>
    <property>
       <name>mapreduce.job.user.name</name>
       <value>hadoop</value>
     </property>
   <property>
      <name>yarn.resourcemanager.address</name>
      <value>hdp-master:8032</value>
    </property>

<property>

<name>mapreduce.framework.name</name>

<value>yarn</value>

</property>

<property>
  <name>yarn.app.mapreduce.am.env</name>
  <value>HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0</value>
</property>
<property>
  <name>mapreduce.map.env</name>
   <value>HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0</value>
< /property>
< property>
   <name>mapreduce.reduce.env</name>
   <value>HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0</value>
< /property>
</configuration>
Configure YARN - yarn-site.xml

Edit file yarn-site.xml and make sure the following entries exist:

<configuration>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.resourcemanager.hostname</name>
     <value>hdp-master</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.server.resourcemanager.application.expiry.interval</name>
     <value>60000</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.nodemanager.aux-services</name>
     <value>mapreduce_shuffle</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.nodemanager.aux-services.mapreduce.shuffle.class</name>
     <value>org.apache.hadoop.mapred.ShuffleHandler</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.log-aggregation-enable</name>
     <value>true</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.log-aggregation.retain-seconds</name>
     <value>-1</value>
   </property>

  <property>
     <name>yarn.application.classpath</name>
   <value>$HADOOP_CONF_DIR,${HADOOP_COMMON_HOME}/share/hadoop/common/*,${HADOOP_COMMON_HOME}/share/hadoop/common/lib/*,${HADOOP_HDFS_HOME}/share/hadoop/hdfs/*,${HADOOP_HDFS_HOME}/share/hadoop/hdfs/lib/*,${HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME}/share/hadoop/mapreduce/*,${HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME}/share/hadoop/mapreduce/lib/*,${HADOOP_YARN_HOME}/share/hadoop/yarn/*,${HADOOP_YARN_HOME}/share/hadoop/yarn/lib/*</value>
   </property>
</configuration>

In the above example, are will use all the default port numbers for YARN:

Address Port
Resource manager web app address 8088
Resource manager secured web app address 8090
Resource tracker address 8031
Resource manager admin address 8033

Install Hadoop in slave server

Create folder

Run the following command in the slave server (if no permission can sudo to root user)

mkdir /hadoop

cd /hadoop

chown -R hadoop /hadoop

Install Hadoop on the salve server hdp-slave-1 by running the folllowing commands in master server (hdp-master):

su hadoop

cd /

scp -rv -i "~/.ssh/hdp-key" /hadoop  hadoop@hdp-slave-1:/

scp command is used to copy the /hadoop folder from master to slave server.

Sync configuration files

The following command can be used to sync configuration files:

scp -rv -i "~/.ssh/hdp-key" /hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/etc  hadoop@hdp-slave-1:/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/

Format name mode in master

Run the following command to format name node:

tangf@hdp-master:/> su hadoop
Password:
hadoop@hdp-master:/> cd /hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0> bin/hadoop namenode -format

Make sure there is no errors when initializing.

Start Hadoop

Start HDFS

Since we have configured passwordless ssh between our master and slave servers, we can just use the following command to start HDFS daemons:

$HADOOP_HOME/sbin/start-dfs.sh

Verify through WebUI

Web URL for DFS health reports: http://hdp-master:9870/dfshealth.html#tab-overview

You should be able to see two live nodes:

image

image

The two data nodes’ URLs are:

Verify through command line

hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop/hadoop-3.1.0/etc/hadoop> hdfs dfsadmin -report
Configured Capacity: 39248199680 (36.55 GB)
Present Capacity: 16996110336 (15.83 GB)
DFS Remaining: 16996085760 (15.83 GB)
DFS Used: 24576 (24 KB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
Replicated Blocks:
         Under replicated blocks: 0
         Blocks with corrupt replicas: 0
         Missing blocks: 0
         Missing blocks (with replication factor 1): 0
         Pending deletion blocks: 0
Erasure Coded Block Groups:
         Low redundancy block groups: 0
         Block groups with corrupt internal blocks: 0
         Missing block groups: 0
         Pending deletion blocks: 0

-------------------------------------------------
Live datanodes (2):

Name: 192.168.192.132:9866 (hdp-master)
Hostname: hdp-master
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 19320012800 (17.99 GB)
DFS Used: 12288 (12 KB)
Non DFS Used: 14309150720 (13.33 GB)
DFS Remaining: 4641357824 (4.32 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 24.02%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Sun Apr 29 11:50:48 AEST 2018
Last Block Report: Sun Apr 29 11:47:33 AEST 2018
Num of Blocks: 0


Name: 192.168.192.133:9866 (hdp-slave-1)
Hostname: hdp-slave-1
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 19928186880 (18.56 GB)
DFS Used: 12288 (12 KB)
Non DFS Used: 7210156032 (6.71 GB)
DFS Remaining: 12354686976 (11.51 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 62.00%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Sun Apr 29 11:50:46 AEST 2018
Last Block Report: Sun Apr 29 11:47:40 AEST 2018
Num of Blocks: 0

Start YARN

Similarly, YARN can be started using the following command:

$HADOOP_HOME/sbin/yarn-dfs.sh

Verify through resource manager web UI

Web URL for resource manager: http://hdp-master:8088/cluster

image

You should be able to see two live nodes:

Rack Node Address Node HTTP Address
/default-rack hdp-master:39047 hdp-master:8042
/default-rack hdp-slave-1:33634 hdp-slave-1:8042

Stop DFS and YARN

The services can be stopped through the following command lines:

$HADOOP_HOME/sbin/stop-yarn.sh

$HADOOP_HOME/sbin/stop-dfs.sh

Refer to the References section for more details about all the available CLIs.

Verify Hadoop cluster

Let’s verify the cluster by loading some data into HDFS.

The following are the commands (and output):

tangf@hdp-master:/> su hadoop
Password:
hadoop@hdp-master:/> cd /hadoop
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop> wget http://kontext.tech/Syndication/RSS.xml
--2018-04-29 12:10:58--  http://kontext.tech/Syndication/RSS.xml
Resolving kontext.tech (kontext.tech)... 13.75.147.201
Connecting to kontext.tech (kontext.tech)|13.75.147.201|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 212668 (208K) [application/rss+xml]
Saving to: ‘RSS.xml’

100%[============================================================================================================================================================================================>] 212,668     --.-K/s   in 0.1s   

2018-04-29 12:10:59 (1.88 MB/s) - ‘RSS.xml’ saved [212668/212668]


hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop> hdfs dfs -put RSS.xml /
hadoop@hdp-master:/hadoop> hdfs dfs -ls /
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   2 hadoop supergroup     212668 2018-04-29 12:13 /RSS.xml

In DFS admin website, you can also find the file:

image

As shown in the above screen, the file replication is 2 based on our previous configurations.

You can also extend the cluster by adding more nodes.

Have fun with your Hadoop cluster! You can comment here if you encounter any issues or have any questions.

Debug issues

HDFS port

If you encounter similar issues like the following, it indicates the two data nodes cannot communicate with each other (usually because of network issue, for example, firewall).

2018-04-29 00:42:42,067 INFO org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client: Retrying connect to server: hdp-master/192.168.192.132:19000. Already tried 33 time(s); maxRetries=45

For my case, I changed network interface to Internal Zone which solves this issue.

image

Alternatively, you need to configure firewall rules for all the ports required by Hadoop as we did previously for SSH port 22.

YARN resource manager issue

This means your data node manager cannot connect to the resource manager.

2018-04-29 11:29:53,440 INFO org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client: Retrying connect to server: 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:8031. Already tried 9 time(s); retry policy is RetryUpToMaximumCountWithFixedSleep(maxRetries=10, sleepTime=1000 MILLISECONDS)

To fix this issue, make sure your YARN configuration is correct:

   <property>
     <name>yarn.resourcemanager.hostname</name>
     <value>hdp-master</value>
   </property>

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